Para los estudios genéticos no existe un componente “mexicano» que un individuo pueda tener en un 0% o 100%. Sino que los mexicanos somos una mezcla de componentes de tres continentes principalmente: los europeos que llegaron al continente, los africanos que estos trajeron como esclavos y los indígenas de América que habitaban el continente desde hace más de 20,000 años.
These three components are present throughout the country. However, a Mexican individual will have different proportions of these three components depending on the region of the country from which it is and depending on their particular history.
For example, a Mexican from the north, such as Sonora, will probably have a greater European ancestry than a Mexican from the south, such as from Oaxaca, and a Mexican from the coast of Guerrero or Veracruz will have a higher African percentage.
These trends are explained with historical events. The presence of millions of indigenous people in the south of the country is due to the great civilizations in pre-Hispanic times, leaving a greater genetic imprint in the mestizos of the region. On the other hand, Africans who arrived on the coast of Mexico left their mark on the genes of local Mexicans.
We Mexicans have countless stories in our genes. Genetics allows us to discover forgotten ancestors in our family tree and also connect with people from other parts of the world. Finally, it should be noted that being Mexican represents a nationality, not a genetic profile in itself. There are Mexicans with a high European percentage, Mexican Indians, Afro-Mexicans, Mexicans of Asian descent and many more cases. All these Mexicans have a different history and that does not discredit that we are all Mexicans alike.
Juan Esteban Rodríguez R.
Sources: Moreno-Estrada, A., Gignoux, CR, Fernández-López, JC, Zakharia, F., Sikora, M., Contreras, A. V, ... Bustamante, CD (2014). Human genetics The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits. Science (New York, NY), 344 (6189), 1280-1285. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1251688