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Glosary

DNA: DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, contains the instructions for the development and functioning of living organisms. It consists of 4 nucleotides: A, tT, C and G.

Mitochondrial DNA: genome of the mitochondria.

Allele: version of a gene.

Ancestor: ancestor

Autosomes: one of the 22 chromosomes that are inherited in a two-parent way (one from the mother, one from the father). Each one is present in two copies in women and men.

Cell: minimum functional unit of living beings. Size of the cell: 0.000006 meters in diameter

Zygote: cell that results from the union of the ovum and the spermatozoon, from which the embryo develops.

Clado: an evolutionary branch.

Chromosome: It contains the genetic material (genes). Unit of organization of DNA. Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human genome, 22 are "autosomes," and the other is "sexual." Women have two X chromosomes while men have an X and a Y.

Sex chromosome: chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual. In humans, the sex chromosomes are called X and Y. Women have two X chromosomes while men have an X and a Y.

Gene drift: random change in allele frequencies of a population due to variations in the contribution of each individual to the next generation.

Genetic differentiation: process in which the genetic composition of two or more populations, isolated one from the other, diverges over time.

Genetic diversity: variability in the genomes of individuals belonging to different populations

Eurasia: geographical area comprising Europe and Asia united.

DNA extraction process in which DNA is obtained from a biological sample, such as saliva or blood.

Phenotype: physical expression of a trait

Gen: minimum unit of inheritance and contains the instructions to create a protein (or a molecule with a specific action)

Genetics: study of the inheritance

Genome: set of chromosomes of an individual. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Length of the human genome: 2 meters. Dogs have 39 pairs of chromosomes. Children have half the genome of the father and half of the mother.

Genotyping: process by which the genotype of an individual is determined

Genotype: Pairs of genes responsible for a particular trait

Haplogroup: It is applied to haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA or Y chromosome that is defined by the presence of mutations (it has phylogenetic stability)

Haplotype: Combination of alleles in the same DNA molecule, which are inherited together.

Genetic heritage: Transmission from generation to generation of the biological characteristics of living beings.

Levante mediterráneo: Territory to which is named the zone of the near east that at the moment understands the countries of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Jordan.

Uniparental lineage: Inheritance received from only one of the parents.

Genetic marker: Segment of DNA that has a specific physical position in the genome and can be used to track the history of individuals and populations. A marker can be a single nucleotide (such as a SNP), a gene or another region of the genome.

Genetic mixture: Formation of a hybrid population by the mixture of two ancestral populations.

Microarray: a collection of DNA spots on a solid surface that is used for the parallel processing of a large number of SNPs. It is usually used for the purpose of genotyping individuals.

Migration: Movement of a population (or individual) from one area to another.

Mitochondria: cellular structure responsible for the generation of energy, present in thousands of copies in the cells. The mitochondria has its own genome that is inherited maternally, from mothers to children.

Molecule: small unit of atoms that has all the physical and chemical properties of a substance.

Mutation: Change in genetic information (DNA). Before cell division, DNA has to be duplicated. During this duplication process, changes in the DNA sequence can occur. Mutations occur spontaneously. This may or may not have an effect. Mutations that are transmitted to the next generation occur in sex cells (sperm and eggs).

Nucleus: cellular structure that contains the chromosomes of an organism

Nucleotide: Molecular component of DNA (A, T, C, G)

Organelle: functional structures that are found inside cells.

Beringia / Beringia Bridge: Piece of land that links North America and Eurasia through the Bering Strait.

Sequence: order in which the nucleotides are found in the genome.

SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism): Mutation of a single nucleotide in a specific position of the genome. For example: A - T.

Last Glacial Maximum: Climatic period where the volume of ice in the earth had its maximum level. It happened 18-22 thousand years ago.

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